Hydraulic, Hydrostatic And Pneumatic Systems.

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DOUBLE-ACTING CYLINDERS sectional view Double-acting cylinders can provide force in both directions, which means that oil pressure can applied to either side of the piston within the cylinder. When oil pressure is applied to one end of the cylinder to extend it, oil from the opposite side return to the reservoir. This is reversed when the cylinder is retracted.

The hydraulic cylinder is one of the most common actuators in heavy equipment hydraulic systems. The function of hydraulic cylinder is similar to that of a hydraulic motor; it converts hydraulic power into mechanical power.


Three types of hydraulic cylinders are used:

  • Piston
  • Vane
  • Telescopic


A reservoir in hydraulic system has the following roles:

  • Stores hydraulic oil.
  • Helps keep oil clean and free of air.
  • Acts as a heat exchanger to help cool the oil.


Hydraulic levers can be used to demonstrate Pascal’s law: Pressure equals force divide by the sectional area it acts on. Similarly, force equal pressure multiplied by the area.

Hydraulics and Heavy Equipment Operations Hydraulic equipment applies the scientific principles described above in order to perform useful work via multiple machine functions. A hydraulic ram is a linear actuator in which hydraulic force is converted into mechanical energy.

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